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维斯比规则(中英文)
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维斯比规则


     各缔约国考虑到修改一九二四年八月二十五日在布鲁塞尔签订的关于《统一提单的若干法律规则的国际公约》的需要,协议如下:
    
     第一条
    
         1.在第三条第4款中应增加:“但是,当提单已经转给善意行事的第三者时,与此相反的证据不予接受。”
    
         2.在第三条第6款中的第4段应改为:“遵照第6款(修改本)的规定,除非从货物交付之日或应交付之日起一年内提出诉讼,承运人和船舶在任何情况下都免除对于货物的任何责任。但是,诉讼事由提出后,如经当事方同意,该期限可以延长”。
    
         3.在第三条的第6款后应增加下列条文作为第6款(修改本):“即使在前款规定的年限期满后,如果在受理该案的法院的法律准许的时间内,仍可以对第三者提出赔偿诉讼。但是,准许的时间不得少于三个月,自提出这种赔偿诉讼的人已经解决了对他本人的索赔或者从起诉传票送达他本人之日起算。”
    
     第二条
    
         第四条的第5款应予删去,并改为下列规定:
           “(a)除非在装货前,托运人已声明该货物的性质和价值,并载入提单,否则,在任何情况下,承运人或船舶对货物所遭受的或有关的任何灭失或损害,每件或每单位的金额超过10.000法郎的部分,或按灭失或损害的货物每公斤毛重超达30法郎的部分,均不负责任,两者以较高的金额为准。
    
            “(b)全部赔偿金额应参照货物根据契约从船上卸下或应卸下的当地当时的价值计算。
    
         货物价值应按照商品交易所价格确定,或者如无此种价格时,则按现行市场价格确定,或者如既无商品交易所价格又无现行市场价格时,则参照同类同质货物的正常价值确定。
    
            “(c)如果货物是用集装箱、托盘或类似的装运器具拼装时,提单中所载明的、装在这种装运器具中的件数或单位数,应视为就本款所指的件数或单位数;除上述情况外,应视为此种装运器具即是件或单位。
    
            “(d)一个法郎是指一个含有纯度为千分之九百的黄金六十五点五毫克的单位。载决的赔偿数额兑换成国家货币的日期,应由受理该案法院的法律规定。
    
            “(e)如经证实损失是由于承运人蓄意造成损失而作出的行为或不行为或明知可能会产生损失但仍不顾后果而作出的行为或不行为产生的,则承运人或船舶无权享受本款所规定的责任限制的利益。
    
            “(f)本款(a)项所提到的声明,如载入提单时,应作为初步证据,但对承运人不具有约束力或最终效力。
    
            “(g)承运人、船长或承运人的代理人和托运人之间的协议,可以规定高于本款(a)项规定的另外最高金额,但这样规定的最高金额不得低于(a)项所列的最高金额。
    
           “(h)如托运人在提单中,故意谎报货物性质或价值,则在任何情况下,承运人或船舶对货物或与货物有关的灭失或损害概不负责任”。
    
     第三条
    
         在本公约的第四条和第五条之间应插入以下条文作为第四条(修改本):
    
           “1.本公约规定的抗辩和责任限制,应适用于就运输合同所涉及的有关货物的灭失或损害对承运人所提起的任何诉讼,不论该诉讼是以合同为根据还是以侵权行为为根据。
      
           “2.如果这种诉讼是对承运人的雇佣人员或代理人(而该雇佣人员或代理人不是独立的缔约人)提出的,则该雇佣人员或代理人适用按照本公约承运人所可援引的各项答辩和责任限制。
    
           “3.从承运人及其雇佣人员和代理人得到的赔偿总额,在任何情况下都不得超过本公约规定的限制。
    
           “4.但是,如经证实,损失是由于该雇佣人员或代理人蓄意造成损失而作出的行为或不行为,或明知可能会产生损失,但仍不在意而作出的行为或不行为产生的,则该承运人的雇佣人员或代理人不得适用本条的各项规定”。
    
     第四条
    
         本公约的第九条应改为下列规定:
    
        “本公约不应影响任何国际公约或国内法有关对核能损害责任的各项规定”。
    
     第五条
    
     本公约的第十条应改为下列规定:
    
         “本公约各项规定应适用于两个不同国家的港口之间有关的货物运输的每一份提单,如果:
    
          “(a)提单在一个缔约国签发,或
    
            (b)从一个缔约国的港口起运,或
    
            (c)提单载有的或由提单证明的契约的规定,该契约应受本公约的各项规则约束或应受本公约生效的任何国家的立法约束,不论船舶、承运人、托运人、收货人或任何其他有关人的国籍如何。
    
          “每个缔约国应将本公约的各项规定适用于上述提单。
    
          “本条不应妨碍缔约国将本公约的各项规定适用于不包括在前款中的提单”。
    
     第六条
    
         在本议定书的各缔约国之间,本公约与议定书应作为一个文件,结合起来阅读和解释。
    
         本议定书的各缔约国没有义务将本议定书的各项规定适用于虽为本公约缔约国、但不是本议定书缔约国所签发的提单。
    
     第七条
    
         在本议定书的各缔约国之间,任何一国按公约第十五条规定退出本公约,不能解释为退出经本议定书修订的本公约。
    
     第八条
    
         两个或两个以上缔约国就本公约的解释和适用发生争议,而未能通过协商解决时,应根据其中一方的请求提交仲裁。如在提请仲裁之日起六个月内,各方不能对促裁的组成取得一致意见时,则其中任何一方可以按照国际法庭条例将纠纷提交国际法庭。
    
     第九条
    
         1.每一缔约国在签字或批准本议定书或加入本议定书时,可以声明不受本议定书第八条的约束。其他缔约国对作出这一保留的任何缔约国之间的关系上应不受该条的约束。
    
         2.根据第1款,作出保留的任何缔约国可在任何时候通知比利时政府撤销此保留。
    
     第十条
    
         本议定书对批准本公约的,或在一九六八年二月二十三日前加入本公约的,以及出席海上法外交会议第十二次会议(一九六七——一九六八年)的任何国家开放以供签字。
    
     第十一条
    
         1.本议定书须经批准。
    
         2.任何非本公约缔约国的国家所提交的本议定书的批准书,具有加入本公约的效力。
    
         3.批准的文件应交存比利时政府。
    
     第十二条
    
         1.未出席海上法外交会议第十二次会议的联合国成员国或联合国各专门机构成员国,可加入本议定书。
    
         2.加入本议定书,具有加入本公约的效力。
    
         3.加入的文件应交存比利时政府。
    
     第十三条
    
         1.在收到十份批准书或加入文件之日后三个月,本议定书生效,但其中至少应有五个交存批准书的国家是各拥有相当于或超过一百万总吨船舶的国家。
    
         2.按照本条第1款规定,交存使本议定书生效所需的批准或加入文件之日以后的批准或加入本议定书的每一个国家,本议定书在其交存批准或加入文件之后三个月生效。
    
     第十四条
    
         1.任何缔约国可以通知比利时政府退出本议定书。
    
         2.此项退出通知具有退出本公约的效力。
    
         3.此项退出通知在比利时政府收到该通知之日后一年生效。
    
     第十五条
    
         1.任何缔约国在签署、批准或加入本议定书时,或在此后的任何时候,可用书面通知比利时政府,声明在该国的主权管辖下的地域或在由该国负责其国际关系的地域中,哪些地域适用本议定书。
    
         在比利时政府收到该通知之日后三个月,本议定书的适用范围即扩大到通知书所列明的地域,但在本议定书对该缔约国生效之日以前则不适用。
    
         2.如果这些地域尚未适用本公约,则此种扩大也适用于本公约。
    
         3.根据本条第1款作出声明的任何缔约国,可在此后的任何时候通知比利时政府,声明本议定书停止扩大适用到该地域。此项退出应在比利时政府收到退出通知之日后一年生效;此项退出也应适用本公约。
    
     第十六条
    
         各缔约国可以采用下述方法使本议定书生效:赋以法律效力,或以适合于国内立法的形式在国内立法中订入本议定书所采用的各种规则。
    
     第十七条
    
         比利时政府应将下列事项通知出席海上法外交会议第十二次会议(一九六七—一九六八年)的各国,本议定书各加入国及本公约的各缔约国:
    
           1.根据第十条、第十一条和第十二条所收到的签署、批准和加入的文件;
    
           2.根据第十三条,本议定书将生效的日期;
       
           3.根据第十五条,关于适用地域的通知;
    
           4.根据第十四条所收到的退出通知。
    
     下列全权代表,经正式授权,已在本议定书上签字,以资证明。
    
     一九六八年二月二十三日订于布鲁塞尔,共一份,每份都用法文和英文写成,两种文本具有同等效力。本议定书交存于比利时政府档案库,并由比利时政府分发核证无误的本议定书副本。 

 


Protocol to Amend the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading ("Visby Rules")
(Brussels, 23 February 1968)
THE CONTRACTING PARTIES,
CONSIDERING that it is desirable to amend the International Convention for the unification of certain rules of law relating to Bills of Lading, signed at Brussels on 25th August 1924,
HAVE AGREED as follows:
Article 1
(1) In Article 3, paragraph 4, shall be added:
"However, proof to the contrary shall not be admissible when the Bill of Lading has been transferred to a third party acting in good faith".
(2) In Article 3, paragraph 6, sub-paragraph 4 shall be deleted and replaced by:
"Subject to paragraph 6bis the carrier and the ship shall in any event be discharged from all liability whatsoever in respect of the goods, unless suit is brought within one year of their delivery or of the date when they should have been delivered. This period may, however, be extended if the parties so agree after the cause of action has arisen".
(3) In Article 3, after paragraph 6, shall be added the following paragraph 6bis:
"An action for indemnity against a third person may be brought even after the expiration of the year provided for in the preceding paragraph if brought within the time allowed by the law of the Court seized of the case. However, the time allowed shall be not less than three months, commencing from the day when the person bringing such action for indemnity has settled the claim or has been served with process in the action against himself".
Article 2
Article 4, paragraph 5, shall be deleted and replaced by the following:
"(a) Unless the nature and value of such goods have been declared by the shipper before shipment and inserted in the Bill of Lading, neither the carrier nor the ship shall in any event be or become liable for any loss or damage to or in connection with the goods in an amount exceeding the equivalent of 10,000 francs per package or unit or 30 francs per kilo of gross weight of the goods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher.
(b) The total amount recoverable shall be calculated by reference to the value of such goods at the place and time at which the goods are discharged from the ship in accordance with the contract or should have been so discharged.
The value of the goods shall be fixed according to the commodity exchange price, or, if there be no such price, according to the current market price, or, if there be no commodity exchange price or current market price, by reference to the normal value of goods of the same kind and quality.
(c) Where a container, pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidate goods, the number of packages or units enumerated in the Bill of Lading as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed the number of packages or units for the purpose of this paragraph as far as these packages or units are concerned. Except as aforesaid such article of transport shall be considered the package or unit.
(d) A franc means a unit consisting of 65.5 milligrammes of gold of millesimal fineness 900'. The date of conversion of the sum awarded into national currencies shall be governed by the law of the Court seized of the case.
(e) Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in this paragraph if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done with intent to cause damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.
(f) The declaration mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, if embodied in the Bill of Lading, shall be prima facie evidence, but shall not be binding or conclusive on the carrier.
(g) By agreement between the carrier, master or agent of the carrier and the shipper other maximum amounts than those mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be fixed, provided that no maximum amount so fixed shall be less than the appropriate maximum mentioned in that sub-paragraph.
(h) Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible in any event for loss or damage to, or in connection with, goods if the nature or value thereof has been knowingly mis-stated by the shipper in the Bill of Lading".
Article 3
Between Articles 4 and 5 of the Convention shall be inserted the following Article 4bis:
"1. The defences and limits of liability provided for in this Convention shall apply in any action against the carrier in respect of loss or damage to goods covered by a contract of carriage whether the action be founded in contract or in tort.
2. If such an action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier (such servant or agent not being an independent contractor), such servant or agent shall be entitled to avail himself of the defences and limits of liability which the carrier is entitled to invoke under this Convention.
3. The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier, and such servants and agents, shall in no case exceed the limit provided for in this Convention.
4. Nevertheless, a servant or agent of the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of this Article, if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result".
Article 4
Article 9 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:
"This Convention shall not affect the provisions of any international Convention or national law governing liability for nuclear damage".
Article 5
Article 10 of the Convention shall be deleted and replaced by the following:
"The provisions of this Convention shall apply to every Bill of Lading relating to the carriage of goods between ports in two different States if:
(a) the Bill of Lading is issued in a Contracting State,
or
(b) the carriage is from a port in a Contracting State,
or
(c) the contract contained in or evidenced by the Bill of Lading provides that the rules of this Convention or legislation of any State giving effect to them are to govern the contract
whatever may be the nationality of the ship, the carrier, the shipper, the consignee, or any other interested person.
Each Contracting State shall apply the provisions of this Convention to the Bills of Lading mentioned above.
This Article shall not prevent a Contracting State from applying the rules of this Convention to Bills of Lading not included in the preceding paragraphs".
Article 6
As between the Parties to this Protocol the Convention and the Protocol shall be read and interpreted together as one single instrument.
A Party to this Protocol shall have no duty to apply the provisions of this Protocol to Bills of Lading issued in a State which is a Party to the Convention but which is not a Party to this Protocol.
Article 7
As between the Parties to this Protocol, denunciation by any of them of the Convention in accordance with Article 15 thereof, shall not be construed in any way as a denunciation of the Convention as amended by this Protocol.
Article 8
Any dispute between two or more Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention which cannot be settled through negotiation, shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration. If within six months from the date of the request for arbitration the Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any one of those Parties may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of the Court.
Article 9
(1) Each Contracting Party may at the time of signature or ratification of this Protocol or accession thereto, declare that it does not consider itself bound by Article 8 of this Protocol. The other Contracting Parties shall not be bound by this Article with respect to any Contracting Party having made such a reservation.
(2) Any Contracting Party having made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 1 may at any time withdraw this reservation by notification to the Belgian Government.
Article 10
This Protocol shall be open for signature by the States which have ratified the Convention or which have adhered thereto before the 23rd February 1968, and by any State represented at the twelfth session (1967-1968) of the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law.
Article 11
(1) This Protocol shall be ratified.
(2) Ratification of this Protocol by any State which is not a Party to the Convention shall have the effect of accession to the Convention.
(3) The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Belgian Government.
Article 12
(1) States, Members of the United Nations or Members of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, not represented at the twelfth session of the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law, may accede to this Protocol.
(2) Accession to this Protocol shall have the effect of accession to the Convention.
(3) The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Belgian Government.
Article 13
(1) This Protocol shall come into force three months after the date of the deposit of ten instruments of ratification or accession, of which at least five shall have been deposited by States that have each a tonnage equal or superior to one million gross tons of tonnage.
(2) For each State which ratifies this Protocol or accedes thereto after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession determining the coming into force such as is stipulated in paragraph (1) of this Article, this Protocol shall come into force three months after the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.
Article 14
(1) Any Contracting State may denounce this Protocol by notification to the Belgian Government.
(2) This denunciation shall have the effect of denunciation of the Convention.
(3) The denunciation shall take effect one year after the date on which the notification has been received by the Belgian Government.
Article 15
(1) Any Contracting State may at the time of signature, ratification or accession or at any time thereafter declare by written notification to the Belgian Government which among the territories under its sovereignty or for whose international relations it is responsible, are those to which the present Protocol applies.
The Protocol shall three months after the date of the receipt of such notification by the Belgian Government extend to the territories named therein, but not before the date of the coming into force of the Protocol in respect of such State.
(2) This extension also shall apply to the Convention if the latter is not yet applicable to those territories.
(3) Any Contracting State which has made a declaration under paragraph (1) of this Article may at any time thereafter declare by notification given to the Belgian Government that the Protocol shall cease to extend to such territory. This denunciation shall take effect one year after the date on which notification thereof has been received by the Belgian Government; it also shall apply to the Convention.
Article 16
The Contracting Parties may give effect to this Protocol either by giving it the force of law or by including in their national legislation in a form appropriate to that legislation the rules adopted under this Protocol.
Article 17
The Belgian Government shall notify the States represented at the twelfth session (1967-1968) of the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Law, the acceding States to this Protocol, and the States Parties to the Convention, of the following:
1. The signatures, ratifications and accessions received in accordance with Articles 10, 11 and 12.
2. The date on which the present Protocol will come into force in accordance with Article 13.
3. The notifications with regard to the territorial application in accordance with Article 15.
4. The denunciations received in accordance with Article 14.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, duly authorized, have signed this Protocol.
DONE at Brussels, this 23rd day of February 1968, in the French and English languages, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Belgian Government, which shall issue certified copies.

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